The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) is an international standard used to describe and measure the language proficiency of learners of foreign languages. It was developed by the Council of Europe and it provides a basis for the mutual recognition of language qualifications, thus facilitating educational and occupational mobility.

The CEFR is divided into six levels of language proficiency:

  • A1 – Beginner: At this level, a language learner can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type.
  • A2 – Elementary: A language learner at this level can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters.
  • B1 – Intermediate: At this level, a language learner can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.
  • B2 – Upper Intermediate: A language learner at this level can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party.
  • C1 – Advanced: At this level, a language learner can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognize implicit meaning.
  • C2 – Mastery or proficiency: A language learner at this level can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read.

These levels provide a way to discuss language proficiency in a clear and universally understood way, and they are used by language teachers and schools to assess the level of their students, and also by employers to gauge the language proficiency of potential employees.

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